Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Nikita Khrushchev sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten. Medien in der Kategorie „Nikita Khrushchev“. Folgende 36 Dateien sind in dieser Kategorie, von 36 insgesamt. Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow war ein sowjetischer Politiker. Chruschtschow war von 19Parteichef der KPdSU und zudem von 19als Vorsitzender des Ministerrats Regierungschef der Sowjetunion. Er galt als kluger.
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Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow war ein sowjetischer Politiker. Chruschtschow war von 19Parteichef der KPdSU und zudem von 19als Vorsitzender des Ministerrats Regierungschef der Sowjetunion. Er galt als kluger. Ein Jahr vor seinem Tod erschienen seine Memoiren Khrushchev remembers, deren Autorschaft er jedoch aus Parteirücksichten leugnete. Sein Sohn Sergei. Nikita Khrushchev. Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Weiterleitung nach: Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow. Abgerufen von. Medien in der Kategorie „Nikita Khrushchev“. Folgende 36 Dateien sind in dieser Kategorie, von 36 insgesamt. Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament | Khrushchev, Nikita | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist, PublicAffairs, ISBN Laurent, Coumel (), «The scientist. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Volume 2: Reformer, | Khrushchev, Sergei | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand.
Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament | Khrushchev, Nikita | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Tito und Nikita Khrushchev erheben ihre Gläser zum Anstoßen Bildrechte: dpa. zum Seitenanfang scrollen. Diese Seite auf Facebook teilen · Diese Seite. Nikita Sergejewitsch Chruschtschow war ein sowjetischer Politiker. Chruschtschow war von 19Parteichef der KPdSU und zudem von 19als Vorsitzender des Ministerrats Regierungschef der Sowjetunion. Er galt als kluger.
After the war, he received a technical education and became a true believer of communism. Khrushchev rose quickly through the party ranks, becoming a member of the Central Committee in and winning election to the Politburo a few years later.
On February 24, , he denounced the excesses of the Stalin era for several hours, stunning delegates attending the 20th Communist Party Congress.
His de-Stalinization policy prompted movements against Soviet control in Poland and Hungary. To avoid being deposed, Khrushchev nonetheless used some Stalin-like methods to divide and outmaneuver opponents.
Domestically, Khrushchev became known for his dramatic ideas, with some perceived as more humanistic and others ill-conceived.
He attempted to humanize the Soviet system by relaxing restrictions on free expression and releasing waves of political prisoners from the infamous Gulag forced labor camps.
This led to a slow birth of a dissident movement. Yet Khrushchev also launched bold but unattainable agricultural goals by increasing production in areas not suitable for crops.
He relaxed production on military goods and increased production of consumer goods only to impose cutbacks during the arms race.
During much of the Cold War, Khrushchev could be charming, playfully combative or belligerent, depending on his audience. Vice President Richard Nixon over Soviet versus American innovation in home appliances, among other major disagreements.
Nonetheless, his spirit of reform lived on during the perestroika era of the s. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. An arms race occurs when two or more countries increase the size and quality of military resources to gain military and political superiority over one another.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U. In a TV address on October 22, Cuban leader Fidel Castro established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in He ruled over Cuba for nearly five decades, until handing off power to his younger brother Nixon visited the secretary-general of the The official purpose of this Berlin Wall was to On August 5, , representatives of the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere.
The treaty, which President John F. Kennedy signed However, the relationship between the two nations was a tense one. Live TV.
This Day In History. History at Home. Khrushchev Begins the De-Stalinization Process Once a loyal Stalinist, Khrushchev gave a long speech in February that criticized Stalin for arresting and deporting opponents, for elevating himself above the party and for incompetent wartime leadership, among other things.
Eisenhower Welcomes Khrushchev to the U. Kennedy Speaks Before Meeting Khrushchev. Malenkov's power was in the central state apparatus, which he sought to extend through reorganizing the government, giving it additional power at the expense of the Party.
He also sought public support by lowering retail prices and lowering the level of bond sales to citizens, which had long been effectively obligatory.
Khrushchev, on the other hand, with his power base in the Party, sought to both strengthen the Party and his position within it.
While, under the Soviet system, the Party was to be preeminent, it had been greatly drained of power by Stalin, who had given much of that power to himself and to the Politburo later, to the Presidium.
Khrushchev saw that with the Presidium in conflict, the Party and its Central Committee might again become powerful.
Khrushchev presented himself as a down-to-earth activist prepared to take up any challenge, contrasting with Malenkov who, though sophisticated, came across as colourless.
While the scheme eventually became a tremendous disaster for Soviet agriculture, it was initially successful. As Soviet prosecutors investigated the atrocities of Stalin's last years, including the Leningrad case , they came across evidence of Malenkov's involvement.
Beginning in February , Khrushchev replaced Malenkov in the seat of honour at Presidium meetings; in June, Malenkov ceased to head the list of Presidium members, which was thereafter organized in alphabetical order.
Khrushchev's influence continued to increase, winning the allegiance of local party heads, and with his nominee heading the KGB.
At a Central Committee meeting in January , Malenkov was accused of involvement in atrocities, and the committee passed a resolution accusing him of involvement in the Leningrad case, and of facilitating Beria's climb to power.
At a meeting of the mostly ceremonial Supreme Soviet the following month, Malenkov was demoted in favour of Bulganin, to the surprise of Western observers.
According to Khrushchev biographer William Tompson, "Khrushchev's position as first among the members of the collective leadership was now beyond any reasonable doubt.
The post-Stalin battle for political control reshaped foreign-policy. There was more realism and less ideological abstraction when confronted by the European and Middle Eastern situations.
Khrushchev's "secret speech" attack on Stalin in was a signal for abandoning Stalinist precepts, and looking at new options, including more involvement in the Middle East.
Khrushchev in power did not moderate his personality—he remained unpredictable, and was emboldened by the spectacular successes in space.
Khrushchev's policy was still restrained by the need to retain the support of the Presidium and to placate the inarticulate but restive Soviet masses who were thrilled by Sputnik, but demanded a higher standard of living on the ground as well.
After the demotion of Malenkov, Khrushchev and Molotov initially worked together well, and the longtime foreign minister even proposed that Khrushchev, not Bulganin, replace Malenkov as premier.
Molotov opposed the Virgin Lands policy, instead proposing heavy investment to increase yields in developed agricultural areas, which Khrushchev felt was not feasible due to a lack of resources and a lack of a sophisticated farm labor force.
Molotov was resistant, but Khrushchev arranged for an Austrian delegation to come to Moscow and negotiate the treaty.
By the end of , thousands of political prisoners had returned home, and told their experiences of the Gulag labor camps.
Khrushchev believed that once the stain of Stalinism was removed, the Party would inspire loyalty among the people. Some of his colleagues, including Molotov and Malenkov, opposed the disclosure, and managed to persuade him to make his remarks in a closed session.
The 20th Party Congress opened on 14 February In his opening words in his initial address, Khrushchev denigrated Stalin by asking delegates to rise in honour of the Communist leaders who had died since the last congress, whom he named, equating Stalin with Klement Gottwald and the little-known Kyuichi Tokuda.
In four hours, he demolished Stalin's reputation. Khrushchev noted in his memoirs that the "congress listened to me in silence.
As the saying goes, you could have heard a pin drop. It was all so sudden and unexpected. It is here that Stalin showed in a whole series of cases his intolerance, his brutality, and his abuse of power The Secret Speech, while it did not fundamentally change Soviet society, had wide-ranging effects.
The speech was a factor in unrest in Poland and revolution in Hungary later in , and Stalin defenders led four days of rioting in his native Georgia in June, calling for Khrushchev to resign and Molotov to take over.
However, Stalin was not publicly denounced, and his portrait remained widespread through the USSR, from airports to Khrushchev's Kremlin office.
Mikhail Gorbachev , then a Komsomol official, recalled that though young and well-educated Soviets in his district were excited by the speech, many others decried it, either defending Stalin or seeing little point in digging up the past.
The term "Secret Speech" proved to be an utter misnomer. While the attendees at the Speech were all Soviet, Eastern European delegates were allowed to hear it the following night, read slowly to allow them to take notes.
By 5 March, copies were being mailed throughout the Soviet Union, marked "not for the press" rather than "top secret". An official translation appeared within a month in Poland; the Poles printed 12, extra copies, one of which soon reached the West.
It was soon read at Komsomol meetings; that meant another eighteen million listeners. If you include their relatives, friends, and acquaintances, you could say that the entire country became familiar with the speech Spring had barely begun when the speech began circulating around the world.
The anti-Khrushchev minority in the Presidium was augmented by those opposed to Khrushchev's proposals to decentralize authority over industry, which struck at the heart of Malenkov's power base.
During the first half of , Malenkov, Molotov, and Kaganovich worked to quietly build support to dismiss Khrushchev. At an 18 June Presidium meeting at which two Khrushchev supporters were absent, the plotters moved that Bulganin, who had joined the scheme, take the chair, and proposed other moves which would effectively demote Khrushchev and put themselves in control.
Khrushchev objected on the grounds that not all Presidium members had been notified, an objection which would have been quickly dismissed had Khrushchev not held firm control over the military, through Minister of Defense Marshal Zhukov, and the security departments.
Lengthy Presidium meetings took place, continuing over several days. As word leaked of the power struggle, members of the Central Committee, which Khrushchev controlled, streamed to Moscow, many flown there aboard military planes, and demanded to be admitted to the meeting.
While they were not admitted, there were soon enough Central Committee members in Moscow to call an emergency Party Congress, which effectively forced the leadership to allow a session of the Central Committee.
At that meeting, the three main conspirators were dubbed the Anti-Party Group , accused of factionalism and complicity in Stalin's crimes.
The three were expelled from the Central Committee and Presidium, as was former Foreign Minister and Khrushchev client Dmitri Shepilov who joined them in the plot.
Molotov was sent as Ambassador to Mongolia ; the others were sent to head industrial facilities and institutes far from Moscow.
Marshal Zhukov was rewarded for his support with full membership in the Presidium, but Khrushchev feared his popularity and power. In October, the defense minister was sent on a tour of the Balkans, as Khrushchev arranged a Presidium meeting to dismiss him.
Zhukov learned what was happening, and hurried back to Moscow, only to be formally notified of his dismissal. At a Central Committee meeting several weeks later, not a word was said in Zhukov's defense.
After assuming power, Khrushchev allowed a modest amount of freedom in the arts. Vladimir Dudintsev 's Not by Bread Alone ,  about an idealistic engineer opposed by rigid bureaucrats, was allowed to be published in , though Khrushchev called the novel "false at its base".
Pravda described the novel as "low-grade reactionary hackwork", and the author was expelled from the Writer's Union. Once he did so, Khrushchev ordered a halt to the attacks on Pasternak.
In his memoirs, Khrushchev stated that he agonized over the novel, very nearly allowed it to be published, and later regretted not doing so. I should have read it myself.
There's nothing anti-Soviet in it. Khrushchev believed that the USSR could match the West's living standards,  and was not afraid to allow Soviet citizens to see Western achievements.
He instructed Komsomol officials to "smother foreign guests in our embrace". On seeing them, Khrushchev exploded with anger, an episode known as the Manege Affair , describing the artwork as "dog shit",  and proclaiming that "a donkey could smear better art with its tail".
When writers and filmmakers defended the painters, Khrushchev extended his anger to them. However, despite the premier's rage, none of the artists were arrested or exiled.
The Manezh Gallery exhibit remained open for some time after Khrushchev's visit, and experienced a considerable rise in attendance after the article in Pravda.
Under Khrushchev, the special tribunals operated by security agencies were abolished. These tribunals, known as troikas , had often ignored laws and procedures.
Under the reforms, no prosecution for a political crime could be brought even in the regular courts unless approved by the local Party committee.
This rarely happened; there were no major political trials under Khrushchev, and at most several hundred political prosecutions overall. Instead, other sanctions were imposed on Soviet dissidents , including loss of job or university position, or expulsion from the Party.
During Khrushchev's rule, forced hospitalization for the "socially dangerous" was introduced. In , Khrushchev opened a Central Committee meeting to hundreds of Soviet officials; some were even allowed to address the meeting.
For the first time, the proceedings of the Committee were made public in book form, a practice which was continued at subsequent meetings. This openness, however, actually allowed Khrushchev greater control over the Committee, since any dissenters would have to make their case in front of a large, disapproving crowd.
In , Khrushchev divided oblast level Party committees obkoms into two parallel structures, one for industry and one for agriculture.
This was unpopular among Party apparatchiks , and led to confusions in the chain of command, as neither committee secretary had precedence over the other.
As there were limited numbers of Central Committee seats from each oblast , the division set up the possibility of rivalry for office between factions, and, according to Medvedev, had the potential for beginning a two-party system.
This decree created tension between Khrushchev and the Central Committee,  and upset the party leaders upon whose support Khrushchev had risen to power.
Since the s, Khrushchev had advocated the cultivation of corn maize in the Soviet Union. While their intent was to visit only small farms, the delegation chief was approached by farmer and corn salesman Roswell Garst , who persuaded him to insist on visiting Garst's large farm.
While Khrushchev warned against those who "would have us plant the whole planet with corn", he displayed a great passion for corn, so much so that when he visited a Latvian kolkhoz , he stated that some in his audience were probably wondering, "Will Khrushchev say something about corn or won't he?
Khrushchev sought to abolish the Machine-Tractor Stations MTS which not only owned most large agricultural machines such as combines and tractors, but also provided services such as plowing, and transfer their equipment and functions to the kolkhozes and sovkhozes state farms.
Inadequate provisions were made for repair stations. One adviser to Khrushchev was Trofim Lysenko , who promised greatly increased production with minimal investment.
Such schemes were attractive to Khrushchev, who ordered them implemented. Lysenko managed to maintain his influence under Khrushchev despite repeated failures; as each proposal failed, he advocated another.
Lysenko's influence greatly hindered the development of genetic science in the Soviet Union. Local officials, with Khrushchev's encouragement, made unrealistic pledges of production.
These goals were met by forcing farmers to slaughter their breeding herds and by purchasing meat at state stores, then reselling it back to the government, artificially increasing recorded production.
This caused public discontent. In the southern Russian city of Novocherkassk Rostov Region , this discontent escalated to a strike and a revolt against the authorities.
The revolt was put down by the military. According to Soviet official accounts, 22 people were killed and 87 wounded. In addition, demonstrators were convicted of involvement and seven of them executed.
Information about the revolt was completely suppressed in the USSR, but spread through Samizdat and damaged Khrushchev's reputation in the West.
While visiting the United States in , Khrushchev was greatly impressed by the agricultural education program at Iowa State University , and sought to imitate it in the Soviet Union.
At the time, the main agricultural college in the USSR was in Moscow, and students did not do the manual labor of farming.
Khrushchev proposed to move the programs to rural areas. He was unsuccessful, due to resistance from professors and students, who never actually disagreed with the premier, but who did not carry out his proposals.
It's a venerable old institution, a large economic unit, with skilled instructors, but it's in the city! Its students aren't yearning to work on the collective farms because to do that they'd have to go out in the provinces and live in the sticks.
Khrushchev founded several academic towns, such as Akademgorodok. The premier believed that Western science flourished because many scientists lived in university towns such as Oxford , isolated from big city distractions, and had pleasant living conditions and good pay.
He sought to duplicate those conditions in the Soviet Union. Khrushchev's attempt was generally successful, though his new towns and scientific centres tended to attract younger scientists, with older ones unwilling to leave Moscow or Leningrad.
Khrushchev also proposed to restructure Soviet high schools. While the high schools provided a college preparatory curriculum, in fact few Soviet youths went on to university.
Khrushchev wanted to shift the focus of secondary schools to vocational training: students would spend much of their time at factory jobs or in apprenticeships and only a small part at the schools.
While the vocational proposal would not survive Khrushchev's downfall, a longer-lasting change was a related establishment of specialized high schools for gifted students or those wishing to study a specific subject.
The following year, the Novosibirsk Maths and Science Boarding-School became the first permanent residential school specializing in math and science.
Other such schools were soon established in Moscow, Leningrad, and Kyiv. By the early s, over specialized schools had been established, in mathematics, the sciences, art, music, and sport.
The anti-religious campaign of the Khrushchev era began in , coinciding with the 21st Party Congress in the same year.
It was carried out by mass closures of churches   reducing the number from 22, in  to 13, in and to 7, by  , monasteries, and convents, as well as of the still-existing seminaries pastoral courses would be banned in general.
The campaign also included a restriction of parental rights for teaching religion to their children, a ban on the presence of children at church services beginning in with the Baptists and then extended to the Orthodox in , and a ban on administration of the Eucharist to children over the age of four.
Khrushchev additionally banned all services held outside of church walls, renewed enforcement of the legislation banning pilgrimages , and recorded the personal identities of all adults requesting church baptisms , weddings, or funerals.
Non-fulfillment of these regulations by clergy would lead to disallowance of state registration for them which meant they could no longer do any pastoral work or liturgy at all, without special state permission.
According to Dimitry Pospielovsky , the state carried out forced retirement, arrests, and prison sentences on clergymen for "trumped up charges", but he writes that it was in reality for resisting the closure of churches and for giving sermons attacking atheism or the anti-religious campaign, or who conducted Christian charity or who made religion popular by personal example.
When Khrushchev took control, the outside world still knew little of him, and initially was not impressed by him. Short, heavyset, and wearing ill-fitting suits, he "radiated energy but not intellect", and was dismissed by many as a buffoon who would not last long.
He could be charming or vulgar, ebullient or sullen, he was given to public displays of rage often contrived and to soaring hyperbole in his rhetoric.
But whatever he was, however he came across, he was more human than his predecessor or even than most of his foreign counterparts, and for much of the world that was enough to make the USSR seem less mysterious or menacing.
Khrushchev sought to find a lasting solution to the problem of a divided Germany and of the enclave of West Berlin deep within East German territory.
If one was not signed, Khrushchev stated, the Soviet Union would conclude a peace treaty with East Germany. This would leave East Germany, which was not a party to treaties giving the Western Powers access to Berlin, in control of the routes to the city.
Khrushchev sought to sharply reduce levels of conventional weapons, and to defend the Soviet Union with missiles. His approach did not greatly change his foreign policy or military doctrine but is apparent in his determination to choose options that minimized the risk of war.
The First Secretary hoped that public perception that the Soviets were ahead would put psychological pressure on the West resulting in political concessions.
Vice President Richard Nixon , were convinced was a hoax. Khrushchev added to this misapprehension by stating in an October interview that the USSR had all the rockets, of whatever capacity, that it needed.
For years, Khrushchev would make a point of preceding a major foreign trip with a rocket launch, to the discomfiture of his hosts.
Nixon and Khrushchev had an impassioned argument in a model kitchen at the American National Exhibition in Moscow, with each defending the economic system of his country.
Nixon invited Khrushchev to visit the United States, and he agreed. He made his first visit to the United States , arriving in Washington, DC on 15 September , and spending thirteen days in the country.
This first visit by a Soviet premier to the United States resulted in an extended media circus. This visit resulted in an informal agreement that there would be no firm deadline over Berlin, but that there would be a four-power summit to try to resolve the issue.
The Russian's goal was to present warmth, charm and peacefulness, using candid interviews to convince Americans of his humanity and good will.
He performed well and Theodore Windt calls it, "the zenith of his career. Eisenhower was actually unimpressed by the Soviet leader.
A constant irritant in Soviet—U. On 9 April , the U. The Soviets had protested the flights in the past, but had been ignored by Washington.
Content in what he thought was a strong personal relationship with Eisenhower, Khrushchev was confused and angered by the flights' resumption, and concluded that they had been ordered by CIA Director Allen Dulles without the U.
President's knowledge. Nikita Khrushchev planned to visit the U. Khrushchev risked destroying the summit, due to start on 16 May in Paris, if he announced the shootdown, but would look weak in the eyes of his military and security forces if he did nothing.
Ambassador Llewellyn Thompson for help. Khrushchev was undecided what to do at the summit even as he boarded his flight to Paris. He finally decided, in consultation with his advisers on the plane and Presidium members in Moscow, to demand an apology from Eisenhower and a promise that there would be no further U-2 flights in Soviet airspace.
The U. This was not enough for Khrushchev, who left the summit. Khrushchev made his second and final visit to the United States in September The notorious shoe-banging incident occurred during a debate on 12 October over a Soviet resolution decrying colonialism.
Khrushchev was infuriated by a statement of the Filipino delegate Lorenzo Sumulong charging the Soviets with employing a double standard by decrying colonialism while dominating Eastern Europe.
Khrushchev demanded the right to reply immediately and accused Sumulong of being "a fawning lackey of the American imperialists".
Sumulong resumed his speech and accused the Soviets of hypocrisy. Khrushchev yanked off his shoe and began banging it on his desk.
Khrushchev considered U. Vice President Nixon a hardliner, and was delighted by his defeat in the presidential election. He considered the victor, Massachusetts Senator John F.
President's tough talk and actions in the early days of his administration. While Khrushchev had threatened to defend Cuba with Soviet missiles, the premier contented himself with after-the-fact aggressive remarks.
The failure in Cuba led to Kennedy's determination to make no concessions at the Vienna summit scheduled for 3 June Both Kennedy and Khrushchev took a hard line, with Khrushchev demanding a treaty that would recognize the two German states and refusing to yield on the remaining issues obstructing a test-ban treaty.
Kennedy, on the other hand, had been led to believe that the test-ban treaty could be concluded at the summit, and felt that a deal on Berlin had to await easing of East—West tensions.
Kennedy described negotiating with Khrushchev to his brother Robert as "like dealing with Dad. All give and no take. An indefinite postponement of action over Berlin was unacceptable to Khrushchev, if for no other reason than that East Germany was suffering a continuous "brain drain" as highly educated East Germans fled west through Berlin.
While the boundary between the two German states had elsewhere been fortified, Berlin, administered by the four Allied powers, remained open.
Emboldened by statements from former U. Ambassador to Moscow Charles E. William Fulbright that East Germany had every right to close its borders, which were not disavowed by the Kennedy Administration, Khrushchev authorized East German leader Walter Ulbricht to begin construction of what became known as the Berlin Wall , which would surround West Berlin.
Construction preparations were made in great secrecy, and the border was sealed off in the early hours of Sunday, 13 August , when most East German workers who earned hard currency by working in West Berlin would be at their homes.
The wall was a propaganda disaster, and marked the end of Khrushchev's attempts to conclude a peace treaty among the Four Powers and the two German states.
Castro stated, thirty years later, "We had a sovereign right to accept the missiles. We were not violating international law.Translations in context of "Nikita Khrushchev" in English-German from Reverso Context: Nikita Khrushchev was at the height of his powers. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Nikita Khrushchev sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten. From 23 March to 3 April , the French President, Charles de Gaulle, receives Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Tito und Nikita Khrushchev erheben ihre Gläser zum Anstoßen Bildrechte: dpa. zum Seitenanfang scrollen. Diese Seite auf Facebook teilen · Diese Seite. sergei khrushchev. Auf dem XX. Hier musste er die verheerenden Niederlagen gegenüber Stalin vertreten. Politbüromitglied Frol Koslow konnte indes seinen Einfluss mehren; er war seit nach Chruschtschow der zweite Mann in der Partei und damit sein designierter Nachfolger. The American president, John F. Er galt als kluger Tv O und Meister der sozialistischen Rhetorik. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Chruschtschow Begriffsklärung aufgeführt. Nikita Chruschtschow kommen in Wien Tomorrow einem Gipfeltreffen zusammen. Chruschtschow wurde am 7. Nikita Chruschtschow.